Prostate Cancer Epidemiology Consortium: Risk factors for prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men in the United Kingdom, yet few risk factors have been identified for the disease, other than age, family history and ethnicity. Circulating concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I appears to be the only established risk factor prostate cancer that is potentially modifiable. The risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer has increased markedly in the past 25 years, largely due to the increased use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) test. However, many of the prostate cancers detected as a result of PSA-testing are early stage disease that will not progress to clinical disease. The growing proportion of early, localised disease and decreasing numbers of advanced cancers can lead to difficulty in the interpretation of results from epidemiological studies and may partly account for the limited understanding of prostate cancer aetiology. Circulating IGF-I concentrations are associated with diet and predict prostate cancer risk in prospective studies, but questions remain including their relation to the time course of the disease, tumour characteristics, mortality, and the relevance of other related biomarkers. Further evidence is needed on the role in prostate cancer development of other hormones and nutritional biomarkers, as well of other characteristics such as dietary, anthropometric and lifestyle factors. We therefore plan a programme of analyses on prostate cancer (total and clinically relevant advanced stage, high grade and fatal disease) in the UK Biobank cohort, which has uniquely detailed clinical and biological measures on anthropometric indices and other clinical characteristics and questionnaire information on growth, puberty, and sexual behaviour, for which there is a paucity of information from other prospective studies of prostate cancer. UK Biobank has also collected PSA-testing history, information which will be directly relevant to understanding the relationship of PSA-testing with the diagnosis of prostate cancer in the UK.
We propose a research programme on hormonal, anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle factors and prostate cancer risk; this will extend the work of an existing consortium co-ordinated in the Cancer Epidemiology Unit Oxford, the Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Initially we will describe the distributions of potential prostate cancer risk factors for men in UK Biobank (including personal characteristics, anthropometry, diet, alcohol intake, physical activity and history of use of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test). This will provide information that will help in the planning of further analyses of prostate cancer by users.
Thomas J. Littlejohns, Ruth C. Travis, Tim J. Key, Naomi E. Allen, Lifestyle factors and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in UK Biobank: Implications for epidemiological research, Cancer Epidemiology, Volume 45, December 2016, Pages 40-46, ISSN 1877-7821, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2016.09.010. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877782116301746)
|Lead investigator:||Dr. Ruth Travis|
|Lead institution:||University of Oxford|