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Observational and Mendelian Randomization analyses of urinary biomarkers in the UK Biobank. In observational analyses, urinary sodium and potassium ratio showed significant inverse associations with atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, lipid-lowering medication, and T2D. In contrast, urine albumin adjusted for creatinine showed significant positive associations with atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, heart failure, hemorrhagic stroke, lipid-lowering medication, and T2D. We found a positive association between urinary sodium and potassium ratio and albumin with blood pressure, as well as with adiposity-related measures. In our Mendelian Randomization analyses we confirmed the causal association of urinary sodium and potassium ratio with hypertension. In addition, we detect a causal feedback loop between albumin and hypertension, and T2D.