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This paper tested for associations between depression, chronic inflammatory conditions (like rheumatoid arthritis), and cognitive abilities of memory, reasoning, and reaction time. We tested for whether the effects of depression/inflammatory conditions interacted: so is there a much bigger effect of having both, compared with what you would expect from their individual effects? We controlled for potential confounders like age, sex, smoking history, alcohol intake and educational attainment. It was found that both (sets of) conditions associated with worse cognitive abilities, but they did not interact. This suggests that clinicians should bear cognitive impairment in mind, especially as poorer cognition is linked to worse outcomes.